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Vlach, H & Bjork, R. A. (in press). How can we improve teaching? In D. James & I. Warwick (eds.), World Class: Tackling the Ten Biggest Challenges Facing Schools Today. Routledge.


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Bjork, R. A. (in press). Being suspicious of the sense of ease and undeterred by the sense of difficulty: Looking back as Schmidt and Bjork (1992). Perspectives on Psychological Science.


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Bjork, R. A. (2017). Creating desirable difficulties to enhance learning. In I. Wallace & L. Kirkman (eds), Best of the Best: Progress (pp. 81-85). Carmarthen: Crown House Publishing.


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Sparck, E. M., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2016). On the learning benefits of confidence-weighted testing. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications. 1:3 DOI 10.1186/s41235-016-0003-x


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Storm, B. C., & Bjork, R. A. (2016). Do learners predict a shift from recency to primacy with delay? Memory & Cognition, 44, 1204-1214.


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Bjork, R. A. (2016). Commentary on the potential of the MOCA-Minute program. Anesthesiology, 125(5), 844-845. DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000001302.


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Yan, V. X., Clark, C. M., & Bjork, R. A. (2016, in press). Memory and metamemory considerations in the instruction of human beings revisited: Implications for optimizing online learning. In J. C. Horvath, J. Lodge, & J. A. C. Hattie (Eds). From the Laboratory to the Classroom:  Translating the Learning Sciences for Teachers. Link to Chapter


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Noh, S. M., Yan, V. X., Maddox, W. T., & Bjork, R. A. (2016). Optimal sequencing during category learning: Testing a dual-learning systems perspective. Cognition, 155, 23-29.


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Yan, V. X., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2016). On the difficulty of mending metacognitive illusions: A priori theories, fluency effects, and misattributions of the interleaving benefit. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145, 918-933.


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Bjork, R. A. (2016). Preface: Some metacomments on metamemory. In J. Dunlosky & S. K. Tauber (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of metamemory. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.


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Bjork, R. A., & Yue, C. L. (2016). Commentary: Is disfluency desirable? Metacognition and Learning, 11, 133–137. DOI 10.1007/s11409-016-9156-8


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Soderstrom, N. C., Kerr, T. K., & Bjork, R. A. (2016). The critical importance of retrieval—and spacing—for learning. Psychological Science, 27 (2), 223-230.


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Giebl, S., Storm, B. C., Buchli, D. R., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2016). Retrieval-induced forgetting is associated with increased positivity when imagining the future. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69, 351-360. DOI: 10.1080/17470218.2015.1085586.


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Buchli, D. R., Storm, B. C., & Bjork, R. A. (2015). Explaining retrieval-induced forgetting: A mental context change between study and restudy practice is not sufficient to cause forgetting. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69 (6), 1197-1209. DOI: 10.1080/17470218.2015.1076866


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Kircanski, K., Johnson, D. C., Mateen, M., Bjork, R. A., & Gotlib, I. H. (2015). Impaired retrieval inhibition of threat material in generalized anxiety disorder. Clinical Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/2167702615590996


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Bjork, R. A., & Kroll, J. F. (2015). Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning. American Journal of Psychology, 128, 241-252.


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Pashler, H., Bjork, R. A., McDaniel, M., & Rohrer, D. (2015). Review: Comment on Sternberg’s Review of The Malleability of Intellectual Styles by Zhang, Li-Fang. The American Journal of Psychology, 128, 122-125.


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Soderstrom, N. C., & Bjork, R. A. (2015). Learning versus performance: An integrative review. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10, 176-199.DOI: 10.1177/1745691615569000.


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Bjork, R. A. (2015). Forgetting as a friend of learning. In D. S. Lindsay, C. M. Kelley, A. P. Yonelinas, & H. L. Roediger, III (Eds.) Remembering: Attributions, processes, and control in human memory: Papers in honour of Larry L. Jacoby (pp. 15-28). New York: Psychology Press.


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Soderstrom, N. C., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). Testing facilitates the regulation of subsequent study time.  Journal of Memory and Language, 73, 99-115.


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Clark, C. M., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). When and why introducing difficulties and errors can enhance instruction. In V. A. Benassi, C. E. Overson, & C. M. Hakala (Eds.), Applying the Science of Learning in Education: Infusing psychological science into the curriculum.  Retrievable from the Society for the Teaching of Psychology website: teachpsych.org/ebooks/asle2014/index.php


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Storm, B. C., Friedman, M. C., Murayama, K., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). On the transfer of prior tests or study events to subsequent study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 115-124.


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Noh, S. M., Yan, V. X., Vendetti, M. S., Castel, A. D., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). Multilevel induction of categories: Venomous snakes hijack the learning of lower levels. Psychological Science.


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Yan, V. X., Thai, K. P., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). Habits and beliefs that guide self-regulated learning: Do they vary with mindset? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition.


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Vlach, H. A., Sandhofer, C. M., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). Equal spacing and expanding schedules in children’s categorization and generalization.  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.


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Bjork, R. A. & Yan, V. X. (2014). The increasing importance of learning how to learn. In McDaniel, M.A., Frey, R.F., Fitzpatrick, S.M., and Roediger, H.L., III(Eds). Integrating Cognitive Science with Innovative Teaching in STEM Disciplines (pp. 15-36). Saint Louis, Missouri: Washington University in St. Louis Libraries. http://dx.doi.org/10.7936/K7QN64NR


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Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). Making things hard on yourself, but in a good way: Creating desirable difficulties to enhance learning. In M. A. Gernsbacher and J. Pomerantz (Eds.), Psychology and the real world: Essays illustrating fundamental contributions to society (2nd edition). (pp. 59-68). New York: Worth.


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Cantor, A. D., Eslick, A. N., Marsh, E. J., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (2014). Multiple-choice tests stabilize access to marginal knowledge. Memory & Cognition, XX, 1-13. DOI 10.3758/s13421-014-0462-6


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Yan, V. X., Yu, Y., Garcia, M. A., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). Why does guessing incorrectly enhance, rather than impair, retention? Memory & Cognition, 42, 1373-1383.


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Soderstrom, N. C., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). Learning versus performance. In D. S. Dunn (Ed.), Oxford bibliographies online: Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.


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Yue, C. L., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). Reducing verbal redundancy in multimedia learning: An undesired desirable difficulty? Journal of Educational Psychology, 105 (2), 266-277.


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Cohen, M. S., Yan, V. X., Halamish, V., Bjork, R. A. (2013). Do Students Think That Difficult or Valuable Materials Should Be Restudied Sooner Rather Than Later? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition


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Bjork, R. A. (2013). Desirable difficulties perspective on learning. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the mind. Thousand Oaks: Sage Reference.


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Hays, M. J., Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). When and why a failed test potentiates the effectiveness of subsequent study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, Cognition.


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Birnbaum, M., Kornell, N., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). Why interleaving enhances inductive learning: The role of discrimination and retrieval. Memory & Cognition.


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Yue, C. L., Castel, A. D., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). When disfluency is—and is not—a desirable difficulty: The influence of typeface clarity on metacognitive judgments and memory. Memory & Cognition.


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Bjork, R. A., Dunlosky, J., & Kornell, N. (2013). Self-regulated learning: Beliefs, techniques, and illusions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 417-444.


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Little, J. L., Bjork, E. L., Bjork, R. A., & Angello, G. (2012). Multiple-choice tests exonerated, at least of some charges: Fostering test-induced learning and avoiding test-induced forgetting. Psychological Science, 23, 1337-1344.


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Storm, B. C., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2012). On the durability of retrieval-induced forgetting. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 24, 617-629.


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Marsh, E. J., Lozito, J. P., Umanath, S., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2012). Using verification feedback to correct errors made on a multiple-choice test. Memory, 20, 645-653.


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Kornell, N., Bjork, R. A., & Garcia, M. A. (2011). Why tests appear to prevent forgetting: A distribution-based bifurcation model. Journal of Memory and Language, 65, 85-97.


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Halamish, V., & Bjork, R. A. (2011). When does testing enhance retention? A distribution-based interpretation of retrieval as a memory modifier. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 801-812.


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Finley, J. R., Benjamin, A. S., Hays, M. J., Bjork, R. A., & Kornell, N. (2011). Benefits of accumulating versus diminishing cues in recall. Journal of Memory and Language, 64, 289-298.


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Bjork, R. A. (2011). On the symbiosis of learning, remembering, and forgetting. In A. S. Benjamin (Ed.), Successful remembering and successful forgetting: a Festschrift in honor of Robert A. Bjork (pp. 1-22). London, UK: Psychology Press.


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Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2011). Making things hard on yourself, but in a good way: Creating desirable difficulties to enhance learning. In M. A. Gernsbacher, R. W. Pew, L. M. Hough, & J. R. Pomerantz (Eds.), Psychology and the real world: Essays illustrating fundamental contributions to society (pp. 56-64). New York: Worth Publishers.


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Hays, M. J., Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2010). Costs and benefits of feedback during learning. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 17, 797-801.


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Francis, W. S., Fernandez, N. P., & Bjork, R. A. (2010). Conceptual and non-conceptual repetition priming in category exemplar generation: Evidence from bilinguals. Memory, 18, 787-798.


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Storm, B. C., Bjork, R. A., & Storm, J. C. (2010). Optimizing retrieval as a learning event: When and why expanding retrieval practice enhances long-term retention. Memory & Cognition, 38, 244-253.


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Kornell, N., Castel, A. D., Eich, T. S., & Bjork, R. A. (2010). Spacing as the friend of both memory and induction in younger and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 25, 498-503.


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Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2009). Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 3, 105-119.


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Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2009). A stability bias in human memory: Overestimating remembering and underestimating learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138, 449-468.


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Bjork, R. A. (2009). Structuring the conditions of training to achieve elite performance: Reflections on elite training programs and related themes in Chapters 10-13. In K. A. Ericsson (Ed.), Development of professional expertise: Toward measurement of expert performance and design of optimal learning environments (pp. 312-329). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.


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Kornell, N., Hays, M. J., & Bjork, R. A. (2009). Unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance subsequent learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 35, 989-998.


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Bell, D. S., Harless, M. S., Higa, M. S., Bjork, E. L., Bjork, R. A., Bazargan, M., & Mangione, M. D. (2008). Knowledge retention after an online tutorial: A randomized educational experiment among resident physicians. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23, 1164-1171.


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Kimball, D. R., Bjork, R. A., Bjork, E. L., & Smith, T. A. (2008). Part-list cuing and the dynamics of false recall. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review15, 296-301.


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Kircanski, K., Craske, M., & Bjork, R. A. (2008). Thought suppression enhances memory bias for threat material. Behavioral Research and Therapy, 46, 462-467.


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Spellman, B. A., Bjork, R. A., & Blumenthal, A. (2008). Measuring memory and metamemory: Theoretical and statistical problems with assessing learning (in general and using gamma (in particular) to do so. In J. Dunlosky & R. A. Bjork (Eds.), A handbook of metamemory and memory, (pp.95-114). Hillsdale, NJ: Psychology Press.


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Dunlosky, J. & Bjork, R. A. (2008b). Introduction: The integrated nature of metamemory and memory. In J. Dunlosky & R. A. Bjork (Eds.), A handbook of metamemory and memory (pp. 11-28). Hillsdale, NJ: Psychology Press.


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Dunlosky, J., & Bjork, R. A. (Eds.). (2008a). A handbook of metamemory and memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Psychology Press.


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Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2008b). Learning concepts and categories: Is spacing the enemy of induction? Psychological Science, 19, 585-592.


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Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2008a). Optimizing self-regulated study: The benefits and costs of dropping flashcards. Memory, 16, 125-136.


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Storm, B. C., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2008). Accelerated relearning after retrieval-induced forgetting: The benefit of being forgotten. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 230-236.


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Storm, B. C., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2007). When intended remembering leads to unintended forgetting. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 909-915.


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Marsh, E. J., Roediger, H. L., Bjork, R. A., Bjork, E. L. (2007). The memorial consequences of multiple-choice testing. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6, 194-199.


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Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2007). The promise and perils of self-regulated study. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6, 219-224.


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Bjork, R. A. (2007). Inhibition: An essential and contentious concept. In H. L. Roediger, Y. Dudai, & S. M. Fitzpatrick (Eds.), Science of memory: Concepts (pp. 307-313). Oxford:Oxford University Press.


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Spellman, B. A., DeLoache, J., & Bjork, R. A. (2007). Making claims in papers and talks. In R. J. Sternberg, H. L. Roediger, & D. F. Halpern (Eds.), Critical thinking in psychology (pp. 177-195). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


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Bjork, R. A., Bjork, E. L., & Caughey, J. B. (2007). Retrieval as a self-limiting process: Part II. In J. S. Nairne (Ed.), The foundations of remembering: Essays in honor of Henry L. Roediger III (pp. 19-37). New York: Psychology Press.


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Richland, L. E., Linn, M. C., & Bjork, R. A. (2007). Cognition and instruction: Bridging laboratory and classroom settings. In F. Durso, R. Nickerson, S. Dumais, S. Lewandowsky, & T. Perfect (Eds), Handbook of Applied Cognition, 2nd Edition (pp. 555-583). West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


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Storm, B. C., Bjork, E. L., Bjork, R. A., & Nestojko, J. F. (2006). Is retrieval success a necessary condition for retrieval-induced forgetting? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 1023-1027.


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Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (2006, September). Freedom, flexibility, and never finished. APS Observer, 19, 29-30.


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Koriat, A., Fiedler, K., & Bjork, R. A. (2006). Inflation of conditional prediction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 429-447.


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Koriat, A., & Bjork, R. A. (2006). Mending metacognitive illusions: A comparison of mnemonic-based and theory-based procedures. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 1133-1145.


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Koriat, A., & Bjork, R. A. (2006). Illusions of competence during study can be remedied by manipulations that enhance learners’ sensitivity to retrieval conditions at test. Memory & Cognition, 34, 959-972.


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Koriat, A., Ma’ayan H., Sheffer, L., & Bjork, R. A. (2006). Exploring a mnemonic debiasing account of the underconfidence-with-practice effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 595-608.


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Bjork, R. A., & Linn, M. C. (2006, March). The Science of Learning and the Learning of Science: Introducing Desirable Difficulties. American Psychological Society Observer, 19, 29, 39.


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Bjork, E. L., Bjork, R. A., & MacLeod, M. D. (2006). Types and consequences of forgetting: Intended and unintended. In N. Ohta and L. G. Nilsson (Eds.), Memory and Society. Routledge and Psychology Press.


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Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (2006). Optimizing treatment and instruction: Implications of a new theory of disuse. In L-G. Nilsson and N. Ohta (Eds.), Memory and society: Psychological perspectives.


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Appleton-Knapp, S., Bjork, R. A., & Wickens, T. D. (2005). Examining the spacing effect in advertising: Encoding variability, retrieval processes and their interaction. Journal of Consumer Research, 32, 266-276.


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Storm, B. C., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A, (2005). Social metacognitive judgments: The role of retrieval-induced forgetting in person memory and impressions. Journal of Memory and Language, 52, 535-550.


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Richland, L. E., Bjork, R.A., Finley, J.R., & Linn, M.C. (2005). Linking cognitive science to education: Generation and interleaving effects. In B. G. Bara, L. Barsalou & M. Bucciarelli (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrece Erlbaum.


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Koriat, A., & Bjork, R. A. (2005). Illusions of competence in monitoring one’s knowledge during study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31, 187-194.


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Koriat, A., Bjork, R. A., Sheffer, L., & Bar, S. K. (2004). Predicting one’s own forgetting: The role of experience-based and theory-based processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 643-656.


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MacLeod, M. D., Bjork, R. A. & Bjork, E. L. (2003). The role of retrieval-induced forgetting in the construction and distortion of memories (pp.55-68). In B. Kokinov & W. Hirst (Eds.), Constructive Memory: NBU Series in Cognitive Science. Sophia: New Bulgarian University.


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Ceci, S. J., & Bjork, R. A. (2003). Editorial: Science, Politics, and Violence in the Media. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4, i-iii.


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Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2003). Intentional Forgetting can.increase, not decrease, the residual influences of to-be-forgotten information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 524-531. *Featured, Science in Brief, Monitor on Psychology (2003, September): “Study finds a dark side to forgetting false information,” E. Bensen.


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Bjork, R. A. (2003). Interference and forgetting. In J. H. Byrne (Ed.), Encyclopedia of learning and memory, 2nd ed., (pp. 268-273). New York: Macmillan Reference USA.


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Simon, D. A., & Bjork, R. A. (2002). Models of performance in learning multi-segment movement tasks: Consequences for acquisition, retention and judgments of learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8, 222-232.


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Richardson-Klavehn, A., & Bjork, R. A. (2002). Memory: Long term. Encyclopedia of cognitive science. Vol. 2 (pp. 1096-1105). London: Nature Publishing Group.


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Kimball, D. R., & Bjork, R. A. (2002). The influence of intentional and unintentional forgetting on false memories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131, 116-130.


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deWinstanley, P. A., & Bjork, R. A. (2002). Successful lecturing: Presenting. information in ways that engage effective processing. In D. F. Halpern & M. D. Hakel (Eds.), Applying the Science of Learning to University Teaching and Beyond (pp. 19-31). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


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Wagner, A. D., Maril, A., Bjork, R. A., & Schacter, D. L. (2001). Prefrontal contributions to executive control: fMRI evidence for functional distinctions within lateral prefrontal cortex. NeuroImage, 14, 1337-1347.


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Simon, D. A., & Bjork, R. A. (2001). Metacognition in motor learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 907-912. *Featured, Science Watch, Monitor on Psychology (2001, July/August): A blind spot in motor learning, Siri Carpenter.


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Bjork, R. A. (2001, March). How to succeed in college: Learn how to learn. American Psychological Society Observer, 14, 3, 9.


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Bjork, R. A. (2001). Recency and recovery in human memory. In H. L. Roediger, J. S. Nairne, I Neath, & A. M. Surprenant (Eds.), The nature of remembering: Essays in honor of Robert G. Crowder (pp. 211-232). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.


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Bjork, R. A. (2000, December). Giving away and selling the behavioral sciences. Monitor on Psychology, 31, 27.


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Bjork, R. A. (2000, November). Differing views of individual differences. American Psychological Society Observer, 13, 3, 26.


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Bjork, R. A. (2000, October). Human factors 101: Why don’t they just try things out? American Psychological Society Observer, 13, 3, 14.


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Fritz, C. O., Morris, P. E., Bjork, R. A., Gelman, R., & Wickens, T. D. (2000) When further learning fails: Stability and change following repeated presentation of text. British Journal of Psychology, 91, 493-511.


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Bjork, R. A. (2000). Independence of scientific publishing: Reaffirming the principle. American Psychologist, 55, 981-984.


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Bjork, R. A. (2000, July/August). Toward one world of psychological science. American Psychological Society Observer, 13, 3.


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Bjork, R. A., & Ceci, S. J. (2000). The birth of Psychological Science in the Public Interest. American Psychological Society Observer, 13, 5, 14.


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Ceci, S. J., & Bjork, R. A. (2000). Psychological Science in the Public Interest: The case for juried analyses. Psychological Science, 11, 177-178.


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Benjamin, A. S., & Bjork, R. A. (2000). On the relationship between recognition speed and accuracy for words rehearsed via primary versus secondary rehearsal. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 638-648.


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Anderson, M. C., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2000). Retrieval-induced forgetting: Evidence for a recall specific mechanism. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7, 522-530.


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Bjork, R. A. (2000). Psychological Review across the century. Psychological Review, 107, 3-5.


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Lang, A. J., Craske, M. G., & Bjork, R. A. (1999). Implications of a new theory of disuse for the treatment of emotional disorders. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 6, 80-94.


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Bjork, R. A. (1999). Assessing our own competence: Heuristics and illusions. In D. Gopher and A. Koriat (Eds.), Attention and peformance XVII. Cognitive regulation of performance: Interaction of theory and application (pp. 435-459). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


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Benjamin, A. S., Bjork, R. A., & Hirshman, E. (1998). Predicting the future and reconstructing the past: A bayesian characterization of the utility of subjective fluency. Acta Psychologica, 98, 267-290.


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Benjamin, A. S., Bjork, R. A., & Schwartz, B. L. (1998). The mismeasure of memory: When retrieval fluency is misleading as a metamnemonic index. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127, 55-68.


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Bjork, E. L., Bjork, R. A., Anderson, M. C. (1998). Varieties of goal directed forgetting. In J. M. Golding & C. M. MacLeod (Eds.), Intentional Forgetting: Interdisciplinary Approaches (pp. 103-137). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


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Bjork, R. A. (1998). Intentional forgetting in perspective: Comments, conjectures, and some directed remembering. In J. M. Golding and C. MacLeod (Eds.), Intentional forgetting: Interdisciplinary approaches (pp. 453-481). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


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Schwartz, B. L., Benjamin, A. S., & Bjork, R. A. (1997). The inferential and experiential basis of metamemory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 6, 132-137.


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Benjamin, A. S., & Bjork, R. A. (1997). Problematic aspects of embodied memory [Commentary on Glenberg’s (1997) target article What memory is for.]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 20, 20.


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Ghodsian, D., Bjork, R. A., & Benjamin, A. S. (1997). Evaluating training during training: Obstacles and Opportunities. In M. A. Quinones and A. Ehrenstein (Eds.), Training in a rapidly changing workplace: Applications of psychological research (pp. 63-88). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.


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Benjamin, A. S. & Bjork, R. A. (1996). Retrieval fluency as a metacognitive index. In L. M. Reder (Ed.), Implicit memory and metacognition: The 27th Carnegie Symposium on Cognition (pp. 309-338). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


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Bjork, R. A., & Wickens, T. D. (1996). Memory, metamemory, and conditional statistics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 193-194.


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Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (1996). Memory. Volume 10, E. C. Carterette, & M. P. Friedman (Eds.), Handbook of Perception and Cognition. New York: Academic Press. Paperback edition (1997). Academic Press. Selected as a CHOICE Outstanding Academic Book for 1997


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Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (1996). Continuing influences of to-be-forgotten information. Consciousness and Cognition, 5, 176-196.


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deWinstanley, P. A., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (1996). Generation effects and the lack thereof: The role of transfer-appropriate processing, Memory, 4, 31-48.


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Shaw, J. S., Bjork, R. A., & Handal, A. (1995). Retrieval-induced forgetting in an eyewitness paradigm. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 2, 249-253.


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Bjork, R. A. (1995). Editorial. Psychological Review, 102, 3.


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Bjork, R. A., & Druckman, D. (1994). The untapped potential of training. National Academy News Service. (Published in whole or in part by 20 newspapers; see, e.g., the Oakland Tribune, October 14, 1994.)


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Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1994). Remembering can cause forgetting: Retrieval dynamics in long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 1063-1087.


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Richardson-Klavehn, A., Lee, M. G., Joubran, R., & Bjork, R. A. (1994). Intention and awareness in the perceptual identification priming. Memory & Cognition, 22, 293-312.


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Wegner, D. M., Eich, E., & Bjork, R. A. (1994). Thought suppression. In D. Druckman and R. A.Bjork (Eds.), Learning, remembering, believing: Enhancing human performance (pp.277-293). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


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Bjork, R. A. (1994b). Institutional impediments to effective training. In D. Druckman and R. A.Bjork (Eds.), Learning, remembering, believing: Enhancing human performance (pp.295-306). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


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Jacoby, L. L., Bjork, R. A., & Kelley, C. M. (1994). Illusions of comprehension, competence, and remembering. In D. Druckman and R. A. Bjork (Eds.), Learning, remembering, believing: Enhancing human performance (pp.57-80). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


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Druckman, D., & Bjork, R. A. (Eds.) (1994). Learning, remembering, believing: Enhancing human performance. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


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Bjork, R. A. (1994a). Memory and metamemory considerations in the training of human beings. In J. Metcalfe and A. Shimamura (Eds.), Metacognition: Knowing about knowing (pp.185-205). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


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Anderson, M. C., & Bjork, R. A. (1994). Mechanisms of inhibition in long-term memory: A new taxonomy. In D. Dagenbach & T. Carr (Eds.), Inhibitory processes in attention, memory, and language (pp. 265-325). New York: Academic Press.


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Capps, L., Bjork, R. A., & Siegel, D. (1993). The meaning of memories: Untraditional Vietnam Memorial inspires remembering…and healing. UCLA Magazine, 4, 8-9.


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Bjork, R. A. (1992). Interference and memory. In L. R. Squire (Ed.), Encyclopedia of learning and memory (pp. 283-288). New York: Macmillan.


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Vanhuele, M., & Bjork, R. A. (1992). The dynamics of learning and forgetting: A new model and its application to advertising. In K. G. Grunert & D. Fuglede (Eds.), Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the European Marketing Academy (pp. 1411-1413). Denmark: Arhus School of Business.


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Spellman, B. A., & Bjork, R. A. (1992). Technical commentary: When predictions create reality: Judgments of learning may alter what they are intended to assess. Psychological Science, 3, 315-316.


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Schmidt, R. A., & Bjork, R. A. (1992). New conceptualizations of practice: Common principles in three paradigms suggest new concepts for training. Psychological Science, 3, 207-217. Reprinted, 1993, Effective School Practices, 12, 36-48; Reprinted, D.A. Robin, K. Yorkston, and D.R. Beukelman [Eds.], Disorders of motor speech: Recent advances in assessment, treatment, and clinical characterization.


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Bjork, R. A. (1992). William Kaye Estes as mentor, colleague, and friend. In A. Healy, S. Kosslyn, & R. Shiffrin (Eds.), From learning theory to connectionist theory (Vol. 1, pp. vii-x) and From learning processes to cognitive processes: Essays in honor of William K. Estes (Vol. 2, pp. viii-xi). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


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Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1992). A new theory of disuse and an old theory of stimulus fluctuation. In A. F. Healy, S. M. Kosslyn, & R. M. Shiffrin (Eds.), From Learning Processes to Cognitive Processes: Essays in Honor of William K. Estes, (Vol. 2, pp. 35-67). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


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Bjork, R. A., & Vanhuele, M. (1992). Retrieval inhibition and related adaptive peculiarities of human memory. In J. F. Sherry, Jr. & B. Sternthal (Eds.), Advances in consumer research (Vol. 19, pp. 155- 60). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.


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Bjork, R. A., & Druckman, D. (1991/1992). Fooling ourselves about improving ourselves. National Academy Op-Ed Service. (Published in whole or in part by 80 newspapers; see, e.g., the San Francisc Chronicle, November 5, 1991.) Reprinted, 1993, in D. Jarmul (Ed.), Headline News, Science Views II. (pp. 35-37). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


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Bjork, R. A., & Druckman, D. (1991, November). How do you improve human performance? APS Observer, pp. 13-25.


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Bjork, R. A. (1991, November). On giving psychology away. APS Observer, pp. 2, 12.


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Capps, L., & Bjork, R. A. (1991, October 19). Molding memories to fit our life stories. Santa Barbara News-Press.


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Druckman, D., & Bjork, R. A. (Eds.). (1991). In the mind’s eye: Enhancing human performance. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


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Christina, R. W., & Bjork, R. A. (1991). Optimizing long-term retention and transfer. In D. Druckman & R. A. Bjork (Eds.), In the mind’s eye: Enhancing human performance (pp. 23-56). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


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Chi, M. T. H., & Bjork, R. A. (1991). Modelling expertise. In D. Druckman & R. A. Bjork (Eds.), In the mind’s eye: Enhancing human performance (pp. 57-79). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


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Metcalfe, J., & Bjork, R. A. (1991). Composite models never (well, hardly ever) compromise: Reply to Schooler & Tanaka (1991). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 120, 203-210.


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Spellman, B. A., & Bjork, R. A. (1991). The Cognitive Testing System: A User’s Manual. Los Angeles, CA: Academic Publishing Services (UCLA).


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Swets, J. A., & Bjork, R. A. (1990). Enhancing human performance: A study of the National Research Council for the Army Research Institute. Psychological Science, 1, 85-96.


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Bjork, R. A., & Richardson-Klavehn, A. (1989). On the puzzling relationship between environmental context and human memory. In C. Izawa (Ed.), Current issues in cognitive processes: The Tulane Flowerree Symposium on Cognition (pp. 313-344). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


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Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger and F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory and consciousness: Essays in honour of Endel Tulving (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


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Richardson-Klavehn, A., & Bjork, R. A. (1988). Primary vs. Secondary rehearsal in an imagined voice: Differential effects on recognition memory and perceptual identification. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 26, 187-190.


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Landers, D. M., & Bjork, R. A. (1988). Improving motor skills. In D. Druckman & J. A. Swets (Eds.), Enhancing human performance: Issues, theories, and techniques (pp. 61-102). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


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Bjork, R. A., & Schneider, W. (1988). Learning during sleep and accelerated learning. In D. Druckman & J. A. Swets (Eds.), Enhancing human performance: Issues, theories, and techniques (pp. 39-60). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


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Hirshman, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (1988). The generation effect: Support for a two-factor theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 484-494.


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Bjork, R. A. (1988). Retrieval practice and the maintenance of knowledge. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, & R. N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory II (pp. 396-401). London: Wiley.


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Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (1988). On the adaptive aspects of retrieval failure in autobiographical memory. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, & R. N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical Aspects of Memory II. London: Wiley.


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Richardson-Klavehn, A., & Bjork, R. A. (1988). Measures of memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 39, 475-543.


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Jahnke, J. C., Bower, R. E., & Bjork, R. A. (1985). The stimulus prefix is not irrelevant and is redundant in different ways. Memory & Cognition, 13, 501-506.


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Firstenberg, I., & Bjork, R. A. (1983). Memory dynamics and marketing. In J. C. Anderson (Ed.), Proceedings of the division of consumer psychology. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.


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Geiselman, R. E., Bjork, R. A., & Fishman, D. (1983). Disrupted retrieval in directed forgetting: A link with posthypnotic amnesia. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 112, 58-72.


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Bjork, R. A. (1982). Editorial: Some observations on a year’s worth of manuscripts. Memory & Cognition, 10, 1.


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Geiselman, R. E., & Bjork, R. A. (1980). Primary and secondary rehearsal in imagined voices: Differential effects on recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 188-205.


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Bjork, R. A. (1979). An information-processing analysis of college teaching. Educational Psychologist, 14, 15-23.


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Bjork, R. A., & Landauer, T. K. (1978). On keeping track of the present status of people and things. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, & R. N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory. London: Academic Press.


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Landauer, T. K., & Bjork, R. A. (1978). Optimum rehearsal patterns and name learning. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, & R. N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory (pp. 625-632). London: Academic Press.


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Smith, S. M., Glenberg, A. M., & Bjork, R. A. (1978). Environmental context and human memory. Memory & Cognition, 6, 342-353.


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Bjork, R. A. (1978). The updating of human memory. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation. (Vol. 12., pp. 235-259). New York: Academic Press.


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Bjork, R. A., & Geiselman, R. E. (1978). Constituent processes in the differentiation of items in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 347-361.


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Whitten, W. B., & Bjork, R. A. (1977). Learning from tests: The effects of spacing. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 16, 465-478.


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Bjork, R. A. (1975). Retrieval as a memory modifier. In R. Solso (Ed.), Information processing and cognition: The Loyola Symposium (pp. 123-144). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


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Bjork, R. A. (1975). Short-term storage: The ordered output of a central processor. In F. Restle, R. M. Shiffrin, N. J. Castellan, H. R. Lindeman, & D. B. Pisoni (Eds.), Cognitive theory (Vol.1, pp. 151-171). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


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Elmes, D. G., & Bjork, R. A. (1975). The interaction of encoding and rehearsal processes in the recall of repeated and nonrepeated items. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 30-42.


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Jongeward, R. H., Woodward, A. E., & Bjork, R. A. (1975). The relative roles of input and output mechanisms in directed forgetting. Memory & Cognition, 3, 51-57.


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Bjork, R. A., & Whitten, W. B. (1974). Recency-sensitive retrieval processes in long-term free recall. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 173-189.


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Reder, L., Anderson, J. R., & Bjork, R. A. (1974). A semantic interpretation of encoding specificity. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102, 648-656.


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Woodward, A. E., Bjork, R. A., & Jongeward, R. H. (1973). Recall and recognition as a function of primary rehearsal. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 608-617.


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Bjork, R. A. (1973). Why mathematical models? American Psychologist, 28, 426-433.


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Bjork, R. A., & Woodward, A. E. (1973). Directed forgetting of individual words in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 99, 22-27.


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Reitman, W., Malin, J. T., Bjork, R. A., & Higman, B. (1973). Strategy control and directed forgetting. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 140-149.


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Greeno, J. G., & Bjork, R. A. (1973). Mathematical learning theory and the new mental forestry. In P. H. Mussen & M. R. Rosenzweig (Eds.), Annual Review of Psychology (pp. 81-116). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.


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Bjork, R. A. (1972). Theoretical implications of directed forgetting. In A. W. Melton & E. Martin (Eds.), Coding processes in human memory (pp. 217-235). Washington, D.C.: Winston.


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Woodward, A. E., & Bjork, R. A. (1971). Forgetting and remembering in free recall: Intentional and unintentional. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 89, 109-116.


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Bjork, R. A., & Allen, T. W. (1970). The spacing effect: Consolidation or differential encoding? Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 9, 567-572.


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Bjork, R. A. (1970b). Positive forgetting: the noninterference of items intentionally forgotten. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 9, 255-268. Reprinted by Bobbs-Merrill


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Bjork, R. A. (1970a) Repetition and rehearsal mechanisms in models of short-term memory. In D. A. Norman (Ed.), Models of memory (pp. 307-330). New York: Academic Press.


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Bjork, R. A. (1968). All-or-none subprocesses in the learning of complex sequences. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 5, 182-195.


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Bjork, R. A., LaBerge, D., & LeGrande, R. (1968). The modification of short-term memory through instructions to forget. Psychonomic Science, 10, 55-56.


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Bjork, R. A. (1966). Learning and short-term retention of paired associates in relation to specific sequences of interpresentation intervals (Doctoral Dissertation, Stanford University). Dissertation Abstracts, 27, 3684B. (University Microfilms No. 67-4316).


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Batchelder, W. H., Bjork, R. A., & Yellott, J. I. (1966). Problems in mathematical learning theory. New York: Wiley.


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