Robert A. Bjork - Publications

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1Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (in press). Making things hard on yourself, but in a good way: Creating desirable difficulties to enhance learning. In M. A. Gernsbacher and J. Pomerantz (Eds.), Psychology and the real world: Essays illustrating fundamental contributions to society (2nd edition). New York: Worth.

2Noh, S. M., Yan, V. X., Vendetti, M. S., Castel, A. D., & Bjork, R. A. (in press). Multilevel induction of categories: Venomous snakes hijack the learning of lower levels. Psychological Science.

3Yan, V. X., Thai, K. P., & Bjork, R. A. (in press). Habits and beliefs that guide self-regulated learning: Do they vary with mindset? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition.

4Bjork, R. A. (in press). Forgetting as a friend of learning. In D. S. Lindsay, C. M. Kelley, A. P. Yonelinas, & H. L. Roediger, III (Eds.) Remembering: Attributions, processes, and control in human memory: Papers in honour of Larry L. Jacoby. New York: Psychology Press.

5Vlach, H. A., Sandhofer, C. M., & Bjork, R. A. (in press). Equal spacing and expanding schedules in children's categorization and generalization. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

6Bjork, R. A., & Yan, V. X. (in press). The increasing importance of learning how to learn. Chapter to appear in M.A. McDaniel & G. Frey (Eds.) Integrating Cognitive Science with Innovative Teaching in STEM.

7Soderstrom, N. C., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). Testing facilitates the regulation of subsequent study time. Journal of Memory and Language, 73, 99-115.

8Clark, C. M., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). When and why introducing difficulties and errors can enhance instruction. In V. A. Benassi, C. E. Overson, & C. M. Hakala (Eds.), Applying the Science of Learning in Education: Infusing psychological science into the curriculum.  Retrievable from the Society for the Teaching of Psychology web site: http://teachpsych.org/ebooks/asle2014/index.php

9Storm, B. C., Friedman, M. C., Murayama, K., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). On the transfer of prior tests or study events to subsequent study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 115-124.

10Soderstrom, N. C., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). Learning versus performance. In D. S. Dunn (Ed.), Oxford bibliographies online: Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.

11Yue, C. L., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). Reducing verbal redundancy in multimedia learning: An undesired desirable difficulty? Journal of Educational Psychology, 105 (2), 266-277.

12Cohen M. S., Yan V. X., Halamish, V., Bjork R. A. (2013). Do Students Think That Difficult or Valuable Materials Should Be Restudied Sooner Rather Than Later? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition

13Bjork, R. A. (2013). Desirable difficulties perspective on learning. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the mind. Thousand Oaks: Sage Reference.

14Hays, M. J., Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). When and why a failed test potentiates the effectiveness of subsequent study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, Cognition.

15Birnbaum, M., Kornell, N., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). Why interleaving enhances inductive learning: The role of discrimination and retrieval. Memory & Cognition.

16Yue, C. L., Castel, A. D., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). When disfluency is—and is not—a desirable difficulty: The influence of typeface clarity on metacognitive judgments and memory. Memory & Cognition.

17Bjork, R. A., Dunlosky, J., & Kornell, N. (2013). Self-regulated learning: Beliefs, techniques, and illusions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 417-444.

18Little, J. L., Bjork, E. L., Bjork, R. A., & Angello, G. (2012). Multiple-choice tests exonerated, at least of some charges: Fostering test-induced learning and avoiding test-induced forgetting. Psychological Science, 23, 1337-1344.

19Storm, B. C., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2012). On the durability of retrieval-induced forgetting. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 24, 617-629.

20Marsh, E. J., Lozito, J. P., Umanath, S., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2012). Using verification feedback to correct errors made on a multiple-choice test. Memory, 20, 645-653.

21Kornell, N., Bjork, R. A., & Garcia, M. A. (2011). Why tests appear to prevent forgetting: A distribution-based bifurcation model. Journal of Memory and Language, 65, 85-97.

22Halamish, V., & Bjork, R. A. (2011). When does testing enhance retention? A distribution-based interpretation of retrieval as a memory modifier. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 801-812.

23Finley, J. R., Benjamin, A. S., Hays, M. J., Bjork, R. A., & Kornell, N. (2011). Benefits of accumulating versus diminishing cues in recall. Journal of Memory and Language, 64, 289-298.

24Bjork, R. A. (2011). On the symbiosis of learning, remembering, and forgetting. In A. S. Benjamin (Ed.), Successful remembering and successful forgetting: a Festschrift in honor of Robert A. Bjork (pp. 1-22). London, UK: Psychology Press.

25Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2011). Making things hard on yourself, but in a good way: Creating desirable difficulties to enhance learning. In M. A. Gernsbacher, R. W. Pew, L. M. Hough, & J. R. Pomerantz (Eds.), Psychology and the real world: Essays illustrating fundamental contributions to society (pp. 56-64). New York: Worth Publishers.

26Hays, M. J., Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2010). Costs and benefits of feedback during learning. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 17, 797-801.

27Francis, W. S., Fernandez, N. P., & Bjork, R. A. (2010). Conceptual and non-conceptual repetition priming in category exemplar generation: Evidence from bilinguals. Memory, 18, 787-798.

28Storm, B. C., Bjork, R. A., & Storm, J. C. (2010). Optimizing retrieval as a learning event: When and why expanding retrieval practice enhances long-term retention. Memory & Cognition, 38, 244-253.

29Kornell, N., Castel, A. D., Eich, T. S., & Bjork, R. A. (2010). Spacing as the friend of both memory and induction in younger and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 25, 498-503.

30Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2009). Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 3, 105-119.

31Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2009). A stability bias in human memory: Overestimating remembering and underestimating learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138, 449-468.

32Bjork, R. A. (2009). Structuring the conditions of training to achieve elite performance: Reflections on elite training programs and related themes in Chapters 10-13. In K. A. Ericsson (Ed.), Development of professional expertise: Toward measurement of expert performance and design of optimal learning environments (pp. 312-329). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

33Kornell, N., Hays, M. J., & Bjork, R. A. (2009). Unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance subsequent learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 35, 989-998.

34Bell, D. S., Harless, M. S., Higa, M. S., Bjork, E. L., Bjork, R. A., Bazargan, M., & Mangione, M. D. (2008). Knowledge retention after an online tutorial: A randomized educational experiment among resident physicians. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23, 1164-1171.

35Kimball, D. R., Bjork, R. A., Bjork, E. L., & Smith, T. A. (2008). Part-list cuing and the dynamics of false recall. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 296-301.

36Kircanski, K., Craske, M., & Bjork, R. A. (2008). Thought suppression enhances memory bias for threat material. Behavioral Research and Therapy, 46, 462-467.

37Spellman, B. A., Bjork, R. A., & Blumenthal, A. (2008). Measuring memory and metamemory: Theoretical and statistical problems with assessing learning (in general and using gamma (in particular) to do so. In J. Dunlosky & R. A. Bjork (Eds.), A handbook of metamemory and memory, (pp.95-114). Hillsdale, NJ: Psychology Press.

38Dunlosky, J. & Bjork, R. A. (2008b). Introduction: The integrated nature of metamemory and memory. In J. Dunlosky & R. A. Bjork (Eds.), A handbook of metamemory and memory (pp. 11-28). Hillsdale, NJ: Psychology Press.

39Dunlosky, J., & Bjork, R. A. (Eds.). (2008a). A handbook of metamemory and memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Psychology Press.

40Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2008b). Learning concepts and categories: Is spacing the enemy of induction? Psychological Science, 19, 585-592.

41Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2008a). Optimizing self-regulated study: The benefits and costs of dropping flashcards. Memory, 16, 125-136.

42Storm, B. C., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2008). Accelerated relearning after retrieval-induced forgetting: The benefit of being forgotten. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 230-236.

43Storm, B. C., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2007). When intended remembering leads to unintended forgetting. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 909-915.

44Marsh, E. J., Roediger, H. L., Bjork, R. A., Bjork, E. L. (2007). The memorial consequences of multiple-choice testing. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6, 194-199.

45Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2007). The promise and perils of self-regulated study. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6, 219-224.

46Bjork, R. A. (2007). Inhibition: An essential and contentious concept. In H. L. Roediger, Y. Dudai, & S. M. Fitzpatrick (Eds.), Science of memory: Concepts (pp. 307-313). Oxford:Oxford University Press.

47Spellman, B. A., DeLoache, J., & Bjork, R. A. (2007). Making claims in papers and talks. In R. J. Sternberg, H. L. Roediger, & D. F. Halpern (Eds.), Critical thinking in psychology (pp. 177-195). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

48Bjork, R. A., Bjork E. L., & Caughey, J. B. (2007). Retrieval as a self-limiting process: Part II. In J. S. Nairne (Ed.), The foundations of remembering: Essays in honor of Henry L. Roediger III (pp. 19-37). New York: Psychology Press.

49Richland, L. E., Linn, M. C., & Bjork, R. A. (2007). Cognition and instruction: Bridging laboratory and classroom settings. In F. Durso, R. Nickerson, S. Dumais, S. Lewandowsky, & T. Perfect (Eds), Handbook of Applied Cognition, 2nd Edition (pp. 555-583). West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

50Storm, B. C., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A., & Nestojko, J. F. (2006). Is retrieval success a necessary condition for retrieval-induced forgetting? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 1023-1027.

51Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (2006, September). Freedom, flexibility, and never finished. APS Observer, 19, 29-30.

52Koriat, A., Fiedler, K., & Bjork, R. A. (2006). Inflation of conditional prediction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 429-447.

53Koriat, A., & Bjork, R. A. (2006). Mending metacognitive illusions: A comparison of mnemonic-based and theory-based procedures. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 1133-1145.

54Koriat, A., & Bjork, R. A. (2006). Illusions of competence during study can be remedied by manipulations that enhance learners' sensitivity to retrieval conditions at test. Memory & Cognition, 34, 959-972.

55Koriat, A., Ma'ayan H., Sheffer, L., & Bjork, R. A. (2006). Exploring a mnemonic debiasing account of the underconfidence-with-practice effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 595-608.

56Bjork, R. A., & Linn, M. C. (2006, March). The Science of Learning and the Learning of Science: Introducing Desirable Difficulties. American Psychological Society Observer, 19, 29, 39.

57Bjork, E. L., Bjork, R. A., & MacLeod, M. D. (2006). Types and consequences of forgetting: Intended and unintended. In L-G. Nilsson and N. Ohta (Eds.), Memory and society: Psychological perspectives (pp.134-158). Psychology Press: Hove and New York.

58Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (2006). Optimizing treatment and instruction: Implications of a new theory of disuse. In L-G. Nilsson and N. Ohta (Eds.), Memory and society: Psychological perspectives (pp. 109-133). Psychology Press: Hove and New York.

59Appleton-Knapp, S., Bjork, R. A., & Wickens, T. D. (2005). Examining the spacing effect in advertising: Encoding variability, retrieval processes and their interaction. Journal of Consumer Research, 32, 266-276.

60Storm, B. C., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A, (2005). Social metacognitive judgments: The role of retrieval-induced forgetting in person memory and impressions. Journal of Memory and Language, 52, 535-550.

61Richland, L. E., Bjork, R.A., Finley, J.R., & Linn, M.C. (2005). Linking cognitive science to education: Generation and interleaving effects. In B. G. Bara, L. Barsalou & M. Bucciarelli (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrece Erlbaum.

62Koriat, A., & Bjork, R. A. (2005). Illusions of competence in monitoring one's knowledge during study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31, 187-194.

63Koriat, A., Bjork, R. A., Sheffer, L., & Bar, S. K. (2004). Predicting one's own forgetting: The role of experience-based and theory-based processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 643-656.

64MacLeod, M. D., Bjork, R. A. & Bjork, E. L. (2003). The role of retrieval-induced forgetting in the construction and distortion of memories (pp.55-68). In B. Kokinov & W. Hirst (Eds.), Constructive Memory: NBU Series in Cognitive Science. Sophia: New Bulgarian University.

65Ceci, S. J., & Bjork, R. A. (2003). Editorial: Science, Politics, and Violence in the Media. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4, i-iii.

66Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2003). Intentional Forgetting can.increase, not decrease, the residual influences of to-be-forgotten information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 524-531. *Featured, Science in Brief, Monitor on Psychology (2003, September): Study finds a dark side to forgetting false information, E. Bensen.

67Bjork, R. A. (2003). Interference and forgetting. In J. H. Byrne (Ed.), Encyclopedia of learning and memory, 2nd ed., (pp. 268-273). New York: Macmillan Reference USA.

68Simon, D. A., & Bjork, R. A. (2002). Models of performance in learning multi-segment movement tasks: Consequences for acquisition, retention and judgments of learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8, 222-232.

69Richardson-Klavehn, A., & Bjork, R. A. (2002). Memory: Long term. Encyclopedia of cognitive science. Vol. 2 (pp. 1096-1105). London: Nature Publishing Group.

70Kimball, D. R., & Bjork, R. A. (2002). The influence of intentional and unintentional forgetting on false memories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131, 116-130.

71deWinstanley, P. A., & Bjork, R. A. (2002). Successful lecturing: Presenting. information in ways that engage effective processing. In D. F. Halpern & M. D. Hakel (Eds.), Applying the Science of Learning to University Teaching and Beyond (pp. 19-31). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

72Wagner, A. D., Maril, A., Bjork, R. A., & Schacter, D. L. (2001). Prefrontal contributions to executive control: fMRI evidence for functional distinctions within lateral prefrontal cortex. NeuroImage, 14, 1337-1347.

73Simon, D. A., & Bjork, R. A. (2001). Metacognition in motor learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 907-912. *Featured, Science Watch, Monitor on Psychology (2001, July/August): A blind spot in motor learning, Siri Carpenter.

74Bjork, R. A. (2001, March). How to succeed in college: Learn how to learn. American Psychological Society Observer, 14, 3, 9.

75Bjork, R. A. (2001). Recency and recovery in human memory. In H. L. Roediger, J. S. Nairne, I Neath, & A. M. Surprenant (Eds.), The nature of remembering: Essays in honor of Robert G. Crowder (pp. 211-232). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.

76Bjork, R. A. (2000, December). Giving away and selling the behavioral sciences. Monitor on Psychology, 31, 27.

77Bjork, R. A. (2000, November). Differing views of individual differences. American Psychological Society Observer, 13, 3, 26.

78Bjork, R. A. (2000, October). Human factors 101: Why don't they just try things out? American Psychological Society Observer, 13, 3, 14.

79Fritz, C. O., Morris, P. E., Bjork, R. A., Gelman, R., & Wickens, T. D. (2000) When further learning fails: Stability and change following repeated presentation of text. British Journal of Psychology, 91, 493-511.

80Bjork, R. A. (2000). Independence of scientific publishing: Reaffirming the principle. American Psychologist, 55, 981-984.

81Bjork, R. A. (2000, July/August). Toward one world of psychological science. American Psychological Society Observer, 13, 3.

82Bjork, R. A., & Ceci, S. J. (2000). The birth of Psychological Science in the Public Interest. American Psychological Society Observer, 13, 5, 14.

83Ceci, S. J., & Bjork, R. A. (2000). Psychological Science in the Public Interest: The case for juried analyses. Psychological Science, 11, 177-178.

84Benjamin, A. S., & Bjork, R. A. (2000). On the relationship between recognition speed and accuracy for words rehearsed via primary versus secondary rehearsal. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 638-648.

85Anderson, M. C., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2000). Retrieval-induced forgetting: Evidence for a recall-specific mechanism. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7, 522-530.

86Bjork, R. A. (2000). Psychological Review across the century. Psychological Review, 107, 3-5.

87Lang, A. J., Craske, M. G., & Bjork, R. A. (1999). Implications of a new theory of disuse for the treatment of emotional disorders. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 6, 80-94.

88Bjork, R. A. (1999). Assessing our own competence: Heuristics and illusions. In D. Gopher and A. Koriat (Eds.), Attention and peformance XVII. Cognitive regulation of performance: Interaction of theory and application (pp. 435-459). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

89Benjamin, A. S., Bjork, R. A., & Hirshman, E. (1998). Predicting the future and reconstructing the past: A bayesian characterization of the utility of subjective fluency. Acta Psychologica, 98, 267-290.

90Benjamin, A. S., Bjork, R. A., & Schwartz, B. L. (1998). The mismeasure of memory: When retrieval fluency is misleading as a metamnemonic index. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127, 55-68.

91Bjork, E. L., Bjork, R. A., & Anderson, M. C. (1998). Varieties of goal-directed forgetting. In J. M. Golding and C. MacLeod (Eds.), Intentional forgetting: Interdisciplinary approaches (pp.103-137). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

92Bjork, R. A. (1998). Intentional forgetting in perspective: Comments, conjectures, and some directed remembering. In J. M. Golding and C. MacLeod (Eds.), Intentional forgetting: Interdisciplinary approaches (pp. 453-481). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

93Schwartz, B. L., Benjamin, A. S., & Bjork, R. A. (1997). The inferential and experiential basis of metamemory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 6, 132-137.

94Benjamin, A. S., & Bjork, R. A. (1997). Problematic aspects of embodied memory [Commentary on Glenberg's (1997) target article What memory is for.]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 20, 20.

95Ghodsian, D., Bjork, R. A., & Benjamin, A. S. (1997). Evaluating training during training: Obstacles and Opportunities. In M. A. Quinones and A. Ehrenstein (Eds.), Training in a rapidly changing workplace: Applications of psychological research (pp. 63-88). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

96Benjamin, A. S. & Bjork, R. A. (1996). Retrieval fluency as a metacognitive index. In L. M. Reder (Ed.), Implicit memory and metacognition: The 27th Carnegie Symposium on Cognition (pp. 309-338). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

97Bjork, R. A., & Wickens, T. D. (1996). Memory, metamemory, and conditional statistics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 193-194.

98Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (Eds.) (1996). Memory. Volume 10, E.C. Carterette and M.P. Friedman (Eds.), Handbook of perception and cognition. New York: Academic Press.* *Selected as a CHOICE Outstanding Academic Book for 1997.

99Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (1996). Continuing influences of to-be-forgotten information. Consciousness and Cognition, 5, 176-196.

100deWinstanley, P. A., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (1996). Generation effects and the lack thereof: The role of transfer-appropriate processing. Memory, 4, 31-48.

101Shaw, J. S., Bjork, R. A., & Handal, A. (1995). Retrieval-induced forgetting in an eyewitness paradigm. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 2, 249-253.

102Bjork, R. A. (1995). Editorial. Psychological Review, 102, 3.

103Bjork, R. A., & Druckman, D. (1994). The untapped potential of training. National Academy News Service. (Published in whole or in part by 20 newspapers; see, e.g., the Oakland Tribune, October 14, 1994.)

104Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1994). Remembering can cause forgetting: Retrieval dynamics in long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 1063-1087.

105Richardson-Klavehn, A., Lee, M. G., Joubran, R., & Bjork, R. A. (1994). Intention and awareness in the perceptual identification priming. Memory & Cognition, 22, 293-312.

106Wegner, D. M., Eich, E., & Bjork, R. A. (1994). Thought suppression. In D. Druckman and R. A.Bjork (Eds.), Learning, remembering, believing: Enhancing human performance (pp.277-293). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

107Jacoby, L. L., Bjork, R. A., & Kelley, C. M. (1994). Illusions of comprehension, competence, and remembering. In D. Druckman and R. A. Bjork (Eds.), Learning, remembering, believing: Enhancing human performance (pp.57-80). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

108Bjork, R. A. (1994b). Institutional impediments to effective training. In D. Druckman and R. A.Bjork (Eds.), Learning, remembering, believing: Enhancing human performance (pp.295-306). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

109Druckman, D., & Bjork, R. A. (Eds.) (1994). Learning, remembering, believing: Enhancing human performance. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

110Bjork, R. A. (1994a). Memory and metamemory considerations in the training of human beings. In J. Metcalfe and A. Shimamura (Eds.), Metacognition: Knowing about knowing (pp.185-205). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

111Anderson, M. C., & Bjork, R. A. (1994). Mechanisms of inhibition in long-term memory: A new taxonomy. In D. Dagenbach & T. Carr (Eds.), Inhibitory processes in attention, memory, and language (pp. 265-325). New York: Academic Press.

112Capps, L., Bjork, R. A., & Siegel, D. (1993). The meaning of memories: Untraditional Vietnam Memorial inspires remembering...and healing. UCLA Magazine, 4, 8-9.

113Bjork, R. A. (1992). Interference and memory. In L. R. Squire (Ed.), Encyclopedia of learning and memory (pp. 283-288). New York: Macmillan.

114Vanhuele, M., & Bjork, R. A. (1992). The dynamics of learning and forgetting: A new model and its application to advertising. In K. G. Grunert & D. Fuglede (Eds.), Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the European Marketing Academy (pp. 1411-1413). Denmark: Arhus School of Business.

115Spellman, B. A., & Bjork, R. A. (1992). Technical commentary: When predictions create reality: Judgments of learning may alter what they are intended to assess. Psychological Science, 3, 315-316.

116Schmidt, R. A., & Bjork, R. A. (1992). New conceptualizations of practice: Common principles in three paradigms suggest new concepts for training. Psychological Science, 3, 207-217. Reprinted, 1993, Effective School Practices, 12, 36-48; Reprinted, D.A. Robin, K. Yorkston, and D.R. Beukelman [Eds.], Disorders of motor speech: Recent advances in assessment, treatment, and clinical characterization.

117Bjork, R. A. (1992). William Kaye Estes as mentor, colleague, and friend. In A. Healy, S. Kosslyn, & R. Shiffrin (Eds.), From learning theory to connectionist theory (Vol. 1, pp. vii-x) and From learning processes to cognitive processes: Essays in honor of William K. Estes (Vol. 2, pp. viii-xi). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

118Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1992). A new theory of disuse and an old theory of stimulus fluctuation. In A. Healy, S. Kosslyn, & R. Shiffrin (Eds.), From learning processes to cognitive processes: Essays in honor of William K. Estes (Vol. 2, pp. 35-67). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

119Bjork, R. A., & Vanhuele, M. (1992). Retrieval inhibition and related adaptive peculiarities of human memory. In J. F. Sherry, Jr. & B. Sternthal (Eds.), Advances in consumer research (Vol. 19, pp. 155- 60). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.

120Bjork, R. A., & Druckman, D. (1991/1992). Fooling ourselves about improving ourselves. National Academy Op-Ed Service. (Published in whole or in part by 80 newspapers; see, e.g., the San Francisc Chronicle, November 5, 1991.) Reprinted, 1993, in D. Jarmul (Ed.), Headline News, Science Views II. (pp. 35-37). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

121Bjork, R. A., & Druckman, D. (1991, November). How do you improve human performance? APS Observer, pp. 13-25.

122Bjork, R. A. (1991, November). On giving psychology away. APS Observer, pp. 2, 12.

123Capps, L., & Bjork, R. A. (1991, October 19). Molding memories to fit our life stories. Santa Barbara News-Press.

124Druckman, D., & Bjork, R. A. (Eds.). (1991). In the mind's eye: Enhancing human performance. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

125Christina, R. W., & Bjork, R. A. (1991). Optimizing long-term retention and transfer. In D. Druckman & R. A. Bjork (Eds.), In the mind's eye: Enhancing human performance (pp. 23-56). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

126Chi, M. T. H., & Bjork, R. A. (1991). Modelling expertise. In D. Druckman & R. A. Bjork (Eds.), In the mind's eye: Enhancing human performance (pp. 57-79). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

127Metcalfe, J., & Bjork, R. A. (1991). Composite models never (well, hardly ever) compromise: Reply to Schooler & Tanaka (1991). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 120, 203-210.

128Spellman, B. A., & Bjork, R. A. (1991). The Cognitive Testing System: A User's Manual. Los Angeles, CA: Academic Publishing Services (UCLA).

129Swets, J. A., & Bjork, R. A. (1990). Enhancing human performance: A study of the National Research Council for the Army Research Institute. Psychological Science, 1, 85-96.

130Bjork, R. A., & Richardson-Klavehn, A. (1989). On the puzzling relationship between environmental context and human memory. In C. Izawa (Ed.), Current issues in cognitive processes: The Tulane Flowerree Symposium on Cognition (pp. 313-344). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

131Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger and F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory and consciousness: Essays in honour of Endel Tulving (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

132Richardson-Klavehn, A., & Bjork, R. A. (1988). Primary vs. Secondary rehearsal in an imagined voice: Differential effects on recognition memory and perceptual identification. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 26, 187-190.

133Landers, D. M., & Bjork, R. A. (1988). Improving motor skills. In D. Druckman & J. A. Swets (Eds.), Enhancing human performance: Issues, theories, and techniques (pp. 61-102). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

134Bjork, R. A., & Schneider, W. (1988). Learning during sleep and accelerated learning. In D. Druckman & J. A. Swets (Eds.), Enhancing human performance: Issues, theories, and techniques (pp. 39-60). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

135Hirshman, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (1988). The generation effect: Support for a two-factor theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 484-494.

136Bjork, R. A. (1988). Retrieval practice and the maintenance of knowledge. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, & R. N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory II (pp. 396-401). London: Wiley.

137Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (1988). On the adaptive aspects of retrieval failure in autobiographical memory. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, & R. N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical Aspects of Memory II (pp. 283-288). London: Wiley.

138Richardson-Klavehn, A., & Bjork, R. A. (1988). Measures of memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 39, 475-543.

139Jahnke, J. C., Bower, R. E., & Bjork, R. A. (1985). The stimulus prefix is not irrelevant and is redundant in different ways. Memory & Cognition, 13, 501-506.

140Firstenberg, I., & Bjork, R. A. (1983). Memory dynamics and marketing. In J. C. Anderson (Ed.), Proceedings of the division of consumer psychology. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.

141Geiselman, R. E., Bjork, R. A., & Fishman, D. (1983). Disrupted retrieval in directed forgetting: A link with posthypnotic amnesia. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 112, 58-72.

142Bjork, R. A. (1982). Editorial: Some observations on a year's worth of manuscripts. Memory & Cognition, 10, 1.

143Geiselman, R. E., & Bjork, R. A. (1980). Primary and secondary rehearsal in imagined voices: Differential effects on recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 188-205.

144Bjork, R. A. (1979). An information-processing analysis of college teaching. Educational Psychologist, 14, 15-23.

145Bjork, R. A., & Landauer, T. K. (1978). On keeping track of the present status of people and things. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, & R. N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory. London: Academic Press.

146Landauer, T. K., & Bjork, R. A. (1978). Optimum rehearsal patterns and name learning. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, & R. N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory (pp. 625-632). London: Academic Press.

147Smith, S. M., Glenberg, A. M., & Bjork, R. A. (1978). Environmental context and human memory. Memory & Cognition, 6, 342-353.

148Bjork, R. A. (1978). The updating of human memory. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation. (Vol. 12., pp. 235-259). New York: Academic Press.

149Bjork, R. A., & Geiselman, R. E. (1978). Constituent processes in the differentiation of items in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 347-361.

150Whitten, W. B., & Bjork, R. A. (1977). Learning from tests: The effects of spacing. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 16, 465-478.

151Bjork, R. A. (1975). Retrieval as a memory modifier. In R. Solso (Ed.), Information processing and cognition: The Loyola Symposium (pp. 123-144). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

152Bjork, R. A. (1975). Short-term storage: The ordered output of a central processor. In F. Restle, R. M. Shiffrin, N. J. Castellan, H. R. Lindeman, & D. B. Pisoni (Eds.), Cognitive theory (Vol.1, pp. 151-171). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

153Elmes, D. G., & Bjork, R. A. (1975). The interaction of encoding and rehearsal processes in the recall of repeated and nonrepeated items. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 30-42.

154Jongeward, R. H., Woodward, A. E., & Bjork, R. A. (1975). The relative roles of input and output mechanisms in directed forgetting. Memory & Cognition, 3, 51-57.

155Bjork, R. A., & Whitten, W. B. (1974). Recency-sensitive retrieval processes in long-term free recall. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 173-189.

156Reder, L., Anderson, J. R., & Bjork, R. A. (1974). A semantic interpretation of encoding specificity. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102, 648-656.

157Woodward, A. E., Bjork, R. A., & Jongeward, R. H. (1973). Recall and recognition as a function of primary rehearsal. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 608-617.

158Bjork, R. A. (1973). Why mathematical models? American Psychologist, 28, 426-433.

159Bjork, R. A., & Woodward, A. E. (1973). Directed forgetting of individual words in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 99, 22-27.

160Reitman, W., Malin, J. T., Bjork, R. A., & Higman, B. (1973). Strategy control and directed forgetting. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 140-149.

161Greeno, J. G., & Bjork, R. A. (1973). Mathematical learning theory and the new mental forestry. In P. H. Mussen & M. R. Rosenzweig (Eds.), Annual Review of Psychology (pp. 81-116). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.

162Bjork, R. A. (1972). Theoretical implications of directed forgetting. In A. W. Melton & E. Martin (Eds.), Coding processes in human memory (pp. 217-235). Washington, D.C.: Winston.

163Woodward, A. E., & Bjork, R. A. (1971). Forgetting and remembering in free recall: Intentional and unintentional. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 89, 109-116.

164Bjork, R. A., & Allen, T. W. (1970). The spacing effect: Consolidation or differential encoding? Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 9, 567-572.

165Bjork, R. A. (1970b). Positive forgetting: the noninterference of items intentionally forgotten. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 9, 255-268. Reprinted by Bobbs-Merrill

166Bjork, R. A. (1970a) Repetition and rehearsal mechanisms in models of short-term memory. In D. A. Norman (Ed.), Models of memory (pp. 307-330). New York: Academic Press.

167Bjork, R. A. (1968). All-or-none subprocesses in the learning of complex sequences. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 5, 182-195.

168Bjork, R. A., LaBerge, D., & LeGrande, R. (1968). The modification of short-term memory through instructions to forget. Psychonomic Science, 10, 55-56.

169Bjork, R. A. (1966). Learning and short-term retention of paired associates in relation to specific sequences of interpresentation intervals (Doctoral Dissertation, Stanford University). Dissertation Abstracts, 27, 3684B. (University Microfilms No. 67-4316).

170Batchelder, W. H., Bjork, R. A., & Yellott, J. I. (1966). Problems in mathematical learning theory. New York: Wiley.

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